Knowledge-Aware-Search

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This wiki contains supplementary materials for the research article currently under review. This research is part of the PREDOSE project, which is an inter-disciplinary project between the Ohio Center of Excellence in Knowledge-enabled Computing (Kno.e.sis) and the Center for Interventions, Treatment and Addictions Research (CITAR) at Wright State University. PREDOSE is the acronym for PREscription Drug abuse Online Surveillance and Epidemiology.


Overview

While semantic search has become a viable alternative to classical keyword-based search, a review of existing semantic search techniques and semantic search engines (Hakia, DuckDuckGo) reveal a considerable misalignment between the mental model of a user's information need and the knowledge model developed to meet such needs. There is an assumption that assertions in ontologies provide sufficient coverage to appropriately interpret the user information need. Hence minimal (often inadequate) support is provided for interpreting additional elements (such as those that convey intensity, frequency, time intervals, etc), not necessarily modeled in ontologies. In reality, many complex search scenarios require a knowledge of such constructs and extend beyond the boundaries of ontologies altogether. In this work, we develop a context-free grammar that defines the query language interpretable by the our knowledge-aware system. In an evaluation against the popular search engine Google, a popular semantic search engine Hakia and a crowd-sourcing based search engine DuckDuckGo, our Knowledge-Aware Search system outperformed the state of the art in retrieving relevant documents for two complex information needs.

People

Delroy Cameron
Amit P. Sheth
Nishita Jaykumar
Gaurish Anand
Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan
Gary A. Smith

Framework

Our Knowledge-Aware Search Framework consists of three components: 1) a module for Query Interpretation; 2) text analytics for Document Annotation and 3) a Query Matcher.

Query Interpretation

Our module for query interpretation consists of: 1) a Knowledge Model and 2) The Context-Free Grammar

Knowledge Model

The Knowledge Model is the Drug Abuse Ontology (DAO - pronounced dow), which is the first ontology for prescription drug abuse ever created. An OWL version of the DAO is available online for browsing. In our Knowledge-Aware Search system, we interpret keywords according to the lexical/syntactic match between keywords and concept labels in the ontology. We then expand the query with labels and slang terms for the matching concepts (whether a Class or an Individual) and all labels and slangs terms from Subclasses of the given concepts in the ontology hierarchy.

NB: There is no novelty in our approach for ontology-based query interpretation, and we make no claims to that effect in this aspect of our work. Our novelty comes from demonstrating the limitations of ontology-based query interpretation for complex information needs, which often require background knowledge outside of the ontology. To illustrate this, we develop a context-free grammar to define the query language interpretable by the system, which includes information from: 1) the ontology; 2) lexicons; 3) lexicons combined with the ontology (lexico-ontology) and 4) the alphabet of the grammar. In the next section we present details on the grammar.

Context-Free Grammar and Query Language Specification

LEGEND

ALPHABET
ONTOLOGY
LEXICON
LEXICO-ONTOLOGY
EXAMPLES


Ubiquitous Nonterminals

EQUIVALENCE
> greater than | more than | above | in excess of | slightly above | little more | bit more | slightly more | high | higher | highest | higher than
< less than | lower than | below | in lack of | slightly below | little less | bit less | slightly less
= exactly | precisely
>= greater than or equal to | more than | above | in excess of | slightly above | little more | bit more | slightly more | exactly | precisely | high | higher | highest | higher than
<= less than or equal to | less than | lower than | below | in lack of | slightly below | little less | bit less | slightly less | exactly | precisely

 

DEFINITIONS
NUMERIC_AMOUNT -999.99 | ... | 0 | ... | 3-4 | ... | 24/7 | 999
WORDED_AMOUNT one | once | two | twice | three | thrice | four | five | six | seven | eight | nine | ten | eleven | twelve | thirteen | fourteen | fifteen | sixteen | seventeen | eighteen | nineteen | twenty | thirty | forty | fifty | sixty | seventy | eighty | ninty | hundred
NUMBER 0 | 1 | ... | 100
AMOUNT NUMBER |
WORDED_AMOUNT
RANGE [0 - NUMBER] WORDS

 

NS Nonterminals

Class Name Class Source Class Type
INTERVAL Alphabet Compound
FREQUENCY Alphabet Compound
DOSAGE Alphabet Compound
ENTITY Ontology Simple
ROA (Route-Of-Administration) Lexicon/Ontology Simple
DRUGFORM Lexicon/Ontology Simple
SIDEEFFECT Lexicon/Ontology Simple
EMOTION Lexicon Simple
PRONOUN Lexicon Simple
INTENSITY Lexicon Simple
SENTIMENT Lexicon Simple

 

Ontology Nonterminals
Buprenorphine addnok | bup | bupe | bupes | bupey | buprel | buprenex | buprenorphine | buprenorphine analgesic | buprenorphine opioid dependence | buprenorphone | buprigesic | bups | butrans | film | films | morgesic | norspan | probuphine | saboxine | sobos | strip | strips | sub | subbies | subox | suboxene | suboxone | suboxone film | suboxone tablet | subs | subutex | tecs | temgesic | tex | tidigesic | xone
Heroin

 

Alphabet Nonterminals
INTERVAL
PAST_DETERMINER ago | prior | previous | since | before | last | past
PRESENT_DETERMINER now | about | around | several | couple | every | all | this
FUTURE_DETERMINER next | later | after
PERIOD PAST_DETERMINER |
PRESENT_DETERMINER |
FUTURE_DETERMINER
TIME_INDICATOR
HOUR hour | hours | hr | hrs
MINUTE minute | minutes | min | mins
SECOND second | seconds | sec | secs
DURATION_INDICATOR
DECADE decade | decades
YEAR year | years | yr | yrs | annum
MONTH month | months | mth| mths | mo
WEEK week | weeks| wk | wks
DAY day | days | night | nights | nite | nites | morning | mornings | mornin | evening | evenin | evenings | afternoon | noon
DURATION_PERIOD PAST_DETERMINER RANGE DURATION_INDICATOR years ago, weeks prior
PRESENT_DETERMINER RANGE DURATION_INDICATOR weeks now
FUTURE_DETERMINER RANGE DURATION_INDICATOR weeks later, days after
PERIOD_DURATION PAST_DETERMINER RANGE DURATION_INDICATOR last year, previous day
PRESENT_DETERMINER RANGE DURATION_INDICATOR about a year, around a month
FUTURE_DETERMINER RANGE DURATION_INDICATOR later years, next day
TIME_PERIOD TIME_INDICATOR RANGE PAST_DETERMINER hours ago, minutes before
TIME_INDICATOR RANGE PRESENT_DETERMINER hours now
TIME_INDICATOR RANGE FUTURE_DETERMINER hours later, minutes after
PERIOD_TIME PAST_DETERMINER RANGE TIME_INDICATOR last hour
PRESENT_DETERMINER RANGE TIME_INDICATOR several hours, couple of minutes
FUTURE_DETERMINER RANGE TIME_INDICATOR next hour
AMOUNT_TIME_PERIOD AMOUNT RANGE TIME_PAST_PERIOD 5 minutes ago
AMOUNT RANGE TIME_PRESENT_PERIOD 10 hours now
AMOUNT RANGE TIME_FUTURE_PERIOD 5 minutes later
AMOUNT_TIME AMOUNT RANGE TIME_INDICATOR 15 seconds
PERIOD_AMOUNT_TIME PAST_DETERMINER RANGE AMOUNT_TIME last 2 hours, past 2 minutes
PRESENT_DETERMINER RANGE AMOUNT_TIME around 2 hours
FUTURE_DETERMINER RANGE AMOUNT_TIME next 15 seconds, after 2 minutes
AMOUNT_DURATION_PERIOD AMOUNT RANGE DURATION_PAST_PERIOD 5 years ago
AMOUNT RANGE DURATION_PRESENT_PERIOD 5 years now
AMOUNT RANGE DURATION_FUTURE_PERIOD 5 years later, 9 months after
AMOUNT_DURATION AMOUNT RANGE DURATION_INDICATOR 15 months
PERIOD_AMOUNT_DURATION PAST_DETERMINER RANGE AMOUNT_DURATION last 15 weeks, last 2 years
PRESENT_DETERMINER RANGE AMOUNT_DURATION about 3 monts, around five years
FUTURE_DETERMINER RANGE AMOUNT_DURATION next 15 weeks, after 2 years
INTERVAL DURATION_PERIOD |
PERIOD_DURATION |
TIME_PERIOD |
PERIOD_TIME |
AMOUNT_TIME_PERIOD |
AMOUNT_TIME |
PERIOD_AMOUNT_TIME |
AMOUNT_DURATION_PERIOD |
AMOUNT_DURATION |
PERIOD_AMOUNT_DURATION

 

FREQUENCY
FREQUENCY_ITEM hourly | daily | weekly | bi-weekly | biweekly | monthly | yearly | annually
FREQUENCY_INDICATOR times | times a | times an | both times
PER_INDICATOR per | / | FREQUENCY_INDICATOR
PER_SECOND PER_INDICATOR RANGE SECOND /second, times a second
PER_MINUTE PER_INDICATOR RANGE MINUTE per minute, /minute
PER_HOUR PER_INDICATOR RANGE HOUR | hourly per hour, times an hour
PER_DAY PER_INDICATOR RANGE DAY | daily | nightly / day, per day
PER_WEEK PER_INDICATOR RANGE WEEK | weekly, bi-weekly | biweekly per week, /week
PER_MONTH PER_INDICATOR RANGE MONTH | monthly | bi-monthly | bimonthly /month, times a month
PER_YEAR PER_INDICATOR RANGE YEAR | yearly | annually per year, /year
PER_DECADE PER_INDICATOR RANGE DECADE times a year, per year
PER_TIMEINDICATOR PER_SECOND |
PER_MINUTE |
PER_HOUR |
PER_DAY |
PER_WEEK |
PER_MONTH |
PER_YEAR |
PER_DECADE
per min, per hour, /min, /hour
PER_DURATION_INDICATOR PER_INDICATOR RANGE DURATION_INDICATOR per day, per week, /week, /month
AMOUNT_PER_TIME_INDICATOR AMOUNT RANGE PER_TIME_INDICATOR 5 per min, per hour, 24 mg /min
AMOUNT_FREQUENCY AMOUNT RANGE FREQUENCY_INDICATOR 5 times
AMOUNT_FREQUENCY_DURATION AMOUNT_FREQUENCY RANGE DURATION_INDICATOR 5 times a day
FREQUENCY_DURATION FREQUENCY_INDICATOR RANGE DURATION_INDICATOR times a day
FREQUENCY_TIME FREQUENCY_INDICATOR RANGE TIME_INDICATOR times a hour
PERIOD_FREQUENCY_DURATION PERIOD_DETERMINER RANGE FREQUENCY_INDICATOR several times a day
PERIOD_FREQUENCY_TIME PERIOD_DETERMINER RANGE FREQUENCY_TIME several times a day
AMOUNT_FREQUENCY_TIME AMOUNT RANGE FREQUENCY_TIME several times a day
AMOUNT_PER_TIME AMOUNT RANGE PER_TIME_INDICATOR 5 per min, per hour, 24 mg /min
AMOUNT_PER_DURATION AMOUNT RANGE FREQUENCY_TIME 5 per day, 10 per week
FREQUENCY PER_TIME_INDICATOR |
PER_DURATION_INDICATOR |
AMOUNT_FREQUENCY_DURATION |
PERIOD_FREQUENCY_DURATION |
PERIOD_FREQUENCY_TIME |
AMOUNT_FREQUENCY_TIME |
AMOUNT_PER_TIME |
AMOUNT_PER_DURATION
|
FREQUENCY_ITEM

 

DOSAGE
CUBIC_CENTIMETER cc | ccs | cubic c | cubic cs | cubic centimeter | cubic centimeters | cubic centimetres | cubic centimetre | cubic centi-meter | cubic centi-meters | cubic centi-metre | cubic centi-metres
BAG bag | bags
POUND lb | lbs | pound | pounds
GRAM g | gs | gm | gms | gram | grams
MILLIGRAM mg | mgs | milligram | milligrams | milli-gram | milli-grams
MICROGRAM ug | ugs | mcg | mcgs | microgram | micrograms | micro-gram | micro-grams
KILOGRAM kg | kgs | kilogram | kilograms | kilo-gram | kilo-grams
LITER litre | litres | liter | liters
MILLILITER ml | mls | millilitre | millilitres | milliliter | milliliters | milli-litre | milli-litres | milli-liter | milli-liters
MICROLITER mcl | mcls | microlitre | microlitres | microliter | microliters | micro-litre | micro-litres | micro-liter | micro-liters
OUNCE oz | ozs | ounce | ounces
TABLET tablet | tablets | tab | tabs
UNIT CUBIC_CENTIMETER |
BAG |
POUND |
GRAM |
MILLIGRAM |
MICROGRAM |
KILOGRAM |
LITER |
MILLILITER |
MICROLITER |
OUNCE |
TABLET
NUMERIC_AMOUNT_UNIT NUMBER_AMOUNT |
UNIT
1-5 grams, 2 mcg
WORDED_NUMERIC_AMOUNT_UNIT WORD_AMOUNT |
UNIT
hundred milligrams, one ecstasy tablet
DOSAGE NUMERIC_AMOUNT_UNIT |
WORDED_NUMERIC_AMOUNT_UNIT

 

Lexicon Nonterminals
PRONOUN
DEMONSTRATIVE_PRONOUN this | that | these | those
PERSONAL_PRONOUN i | me | you | she | her | he | him | it | we | us | they | them
POSSESSIVE_PRONOUN my | our | ours | your | yours | his | her | hers | its | their | theirs | mine
REFLEXIVE_PRONOUN myself | ourselves | yourself | yourselves | himself | herself | itself | themselves
RELATIVE_PRONOUN that | which | who | whom | whose | whichever | whoever | whomever
INDEFINITE_PRONOUN anybody | anyone | anything | each | either | everybody | everyone | everything | neither | nobody | no one | nothing | one | somebody | someone | something | both | few | many | several | all | any | most | none | some
INTERROGATIVE_PRONOUN what | who | which | whom | whose

 

INTENSITY
LOW low | very low | lower | lower than | lowest | small | very small | smaller | smaller than | smallest | less | less than | less is more | least
AVERAGE average | ideal
HIGH high | very high | higher | highest | large | very large | larger | largest | more | most | excess | excessive

 

EMOTION
AFFECTION adoration | affection | love | fondness | liking | attraction | caring | tenderness | compassion | sentimentality | lovin | loving
LUST arousal | desire | lust | lusting | passion | infatuation
LONGING longing
CHEERFULNESS amused | amusement | bliss | blithe | cheerful | cheerfulness | gay | gaiety | glee | gleeful | glad | gladness | jolly | jolliness | jovial | joviality | joy | joyful | delight | delightful | enjoyed | enjoyment |happy | happiness |jubilation | elated | elation | ecstasy | euphoria | satisfaction
ZEST enthusiasm | zeal | zest |excited | exciting | excitement | thrill | thrilling | exhilaration |
CONTENTMENT contented | contentedness | Contentment | pleasure | satisfied | satisfaction | gratified | gratification
PRIDE pride | proud | prideful | pridefulness | triumph
OPTIMISM eagerness | expecting | hope | hopeful | hoping | hopefulness | optimistic | optimism
ENTHRALLMENT enthrallment | enthrall | rapture
RELIEF relief | ease | relaxation | alleviation
SURPRISE amazement | amazed | surprise | surprised | surprising | astonished | astonishment | astounded | unexpected
IRRITATION aggravation |irritation | irritated | irritating | agitation | annoyed | annoyance |disturbing | grouchiness | grumpiness
EXASPERATION exasperation | frustration
RAGE anger | rage | outrage | fury | wrath | hostility | ferocity | bitterness | hate | loathing | scorn | spite | vengefulness | dislike | resentment | vengeance
DISGUST disgust | revulsion | contempt | disgusting | disgusted
ENVY envy | jealousy | jealous | envying
TORMENT torment | tormented
SUFFERING aggravation | irritation | irritated | irritating | agitation | annoyed | annoyance | disturbing | grouchiness | grumpiness | suffer
DEPRESSION depressed | depression | depressing | cheerless | despair | despairing | dejected | hopelessness | heartbroken | brokenhearted | heartbreak | heartache | gloom | glumness |sad | sadness | unhappy | unhappiness | grief | sorrow | woe | misery | melancholy
DISAPPOINTMENT dismay | disappointment | disappointed | disappointing | displeasure | letdown
SHAME ashamed | shame | regret | regretful | regretting | remorseful | guilt | remorse | guilty
NEGLECT alienation | isolation | neglect | loneliness | rejection | homesickness | defeat | dejection | insecurity | embarrassment | humiliation | insult
SYMPATHY pity | sympathy | compassion | compassionate | sympathizing | sympathetic
HORROR alarm | shock | hysteria | mortification | fear | fright | horror | terror | scare | panic | scared | frightened | fearful | panicking | panicked | panicky
CONFUSE confused | confusing | confusion | confuse
DISCONTENTMENT discontent | discontented | unsatisfied | disgruntled | displeased | dissatisfied
EMBARRASSMENT embarrassment | embarrass | embarrassed | embarrassing | abashment | awkwardness | abashed
FORGIVENESS forgiveness | forgive | pardon | forgiving
THANKFULNESS thankfulness | thankful | appreciation | gratitude | gratefulness | appreciative | grateful
BLAME blame | blamed | blaming
NERVOUSNESS anxiety | nervousness | tenseness | tension | uneasiness | worry | anxious | nervous | tense | uneasy | worried | worrying
LOVE AFFECTION | LUST | LONGING
JOY CHEERFULNESS | ZEST | CONTENTMENT | PRIDE | OPTIMISM | ENTHRALLMENT | RELIEF
ANGER IRRITATION | EXASPERATION | RAGE | DISGUST | ENVY | TORMENT
SADNESS SUFFERING | DEPRESSION | DISAPPOINTMENT | SHAME | NEGLECT | SYMPATHY
FEAR HORROR | NERVOUSNESS

 

SENTIMENT
POSITIVE Im glad | I'm glad | Luckily | awesome | benefit | best choices | best for me | best | didnt feel sick | didn't feel sick | easier | effective | efficacy | emotions come back | favorite | feelings of happiness | get me through | good | great | handy | help A LOT | help immensely | help you | helped me out | helpin more | helping | helps | highly respectable | incredible | isnt a waste | i'snt a waste | it potentiates | most certainly help | normal | pleasant | pretty | prevents any problems | ready | relieved | safety | should be happy | stopped the W/D | to get ok | worked for me | worked perfectly | working | works | works pretty well | would help
NEGATIVE Big fucking mistake | threw up | It was bad | Its really rough | It' s really rough | NEVER work | No longer | SEVERELY dangerous | a number on | avoid using it | bad thing | bad | cant stop sneezing | could be toxic | dangerous | didnt do shit | didn't do shit | didnt go | didn't go | dirty whore | disappointed | dizzy | dont work | fall | feel sick | feel weird | freaking out | fucked up | fucking awful | fucking ever | hard | harm | hated | horrible side effects | horrible withdrawal | hurt | ineffectiveness | it sounds dreadful | lazy | miserable | nauseous | negative | neurotoxicity | no free lunch | no goer | no reduction | not sure | not worth | potential dangers | pretty shitty | prolongs the inevitable | rough | scary | shit | sketchy | still dependent | tremor | turn out bad | very wary | vomiting hard core | want to puke | weird pressure | weird | will not work | wont work | won't work | worst heartburn | worst migraine | worth a shit | wrong

 

Lexico-ontology Nonterminals
SIDEEFFECT
MILD bruising | itching | itching of skin | tingling | tingling in arms | tingling in hands | tingling legs | tingling in body parts | burning in fingers | burning in toes | burning in feet | burning in body parts | changes in behavior | cold | cold hands | cold feet | numbing of hands | numbing of feet | numbing of fingers | numbness of hands | numbness in feet | numbness in toes | numbness in fingers | nodding | muscle pain | muscle stiffness | muscle cramps | muscle weakness | muscle aches | muscle tenderness | loss of appetite | loss of thirst | lightheadedness | light-colored stool | redness | leg redness | swelling of the eyelid | redness of the eyelid | light-colored bowel movement | leg pain | leg swelling | leg tenderness | lack of sweating | lack of energy | itching sensation | burning sensation | irritation at the site of application | irritation at the injection site | increased thirst | increased sensitivity to light | increased sensitivity to glare | increased sensitivity to sun | inability to pass gas | inability to have a bowel movement | ill effects | hoarseness | frequent urination | frequent urge to urinate | tiredness | sore throat | fertility problem | pain in arm | pain in leg | pain in the back | pain in side | temporary blurred vision | pain in stomach | pain in the joints | pain in the upper right part of the stomach | fatigue | feeling anxious | aching pain in the hips | aching pain in the groin | difficulty doing exercise | aching pain in the thighs | swelling in the big toe | pale stools | dark stools | black stools | pale skin | paleness | paleness of tongue | paleness of lips | paleness of palms | grayness of the lips | grayness of the tongue | grayness of palms | peeling skin | puking | vomiting | uncontrollable movements | headache | muscle contractions | redness in the place where you applied the medication | tenderness in the place where you applied the medication | swelling in the place where you applied the medication | pain in the place where you applied the medication | warmth in the place where you applied the medication | taste changes | warmth in leg | restlessness | ringing in ears | buzzing in ears | buzzing in your ears | rush | sensitivity of the eyes to light | sensitivity to light | sickness | symptoms | sleeplessness | slurred speech | sore in the mouth | sore in the jaw | sore throat | chills | cough | signs of infection | stinging | stomach cramps | stomach pain | stomach upset | straining | pain during bowel movements |
MODERATE blisters | blistering | skin blisters that are itchy | skin blisters that are painful | skin discoloration | skin eruptions | skin irritation | yellowing of the skin | peeling of skin | blistering of skin | blood in urine | blood in stool | bloody stool | blue-green urine | orange-colored urine | red urine | pink urine | bluish skin color | bluish-colored fingernails | bluish-colored lips | bluish-colored skin | brown colored urine | prickling | blurred vision | decreased vision | vision problem | blurry vision | cloudy vision | rash | rash in skin | lumps in skin | numbness | weakness in arms | weakness in legs | cellulitis | change in vision | changes in skin color | changes in vision | confusion | pus | swelling | coughing up mucus | coughing up material that is bright red | dark colored urine | nervousness | noisy breathing | high pitched breathing | nausea | nasal burning | joint pain | joint stiffness | mood changes | rage | memory problem | lower back pain | loss of vision | loss of consciousness | joint aches | infection | infection of dialysis access | pus filled areas of the skin | infected filled areas of the scalp | infected areas of skin | redness of the eye | swelling of the eye | itching of the eye | difficulty swallowing | hot area on the skin | red area on the skin | swollen area on the skin | throat tightness | hives | hallucination | seeing things | hearing voices | flu-like symptoms | fever | faintness | fainting | eye pain | easy bruising | easy bleeding | foul smelling vaginal discharge | prolonged erection | painful erection | frequent erection | flushing | erection that lasts for hours | painful erection of the penis | ear pain | drainage of pus in the mouth | double vision | dizziness | painful urination | difficulty urinating | difficulty thinking clearly | difficulty understanding reality | difficulty speaking | difficulty when urinating | difficulty in seeing colors | difficulty in seeing clearly | difficulty falling asleep | difficulty staying asleep | difficulty urination | decreased consciousness | dark urine | dark red spots in the mouth | pain and swelling of the sinuses | overactive reflexes | swelling in joints | pain when urinating | weakness in body parts | weakness in hands | weakness in legs | weakness in arms | weakness in feet | painful white patches in the mouth or throat | vaginal infection | vaginal itching | hearing loss | very severe pain at the injection site | vision changes | vision loss | vomit that looks like coffee grounds | yellow skin | darkened skin | yellowing of skin | yellowing of eyes | excessive weight loss | rapid weight loss | hemorrhoid | rectal bleeding | red blood in stool | pus-filled bumps on the skin | red scaly patches on the skin | unexplained weight gain | unusual bleeding | unusual bruising | swelling at the injection site | redness at the injection site | pain at the injection site | blisters on the palms of the hands | blisters on the soles of the feet | redness the palms of the hands | redness the soles of the feet | pain the palms of the hands | pain the soles of the feet | swelling the palms of the hands | swelling the soles of the feet | upset stomach | uncontrollable shaking | uncontrollable face movement | uncontrollable mouth movement | uncontrollable jaw movement | unpleasant taste | unusual movements of the head | unusual movements of the neck muscles | unusual movements of face | unusual movements of body that you cannot control | unusual muscle weakness | difficulty with muscle control | unusual swelling of the face | unusual tiredness or weakness | oozing pus | signs of skin infection in the place where you applied | tightness in throat | including status epilepticus | swollen veins in the legs | symptoms | crusting of the skin | swelling of the tongue | swelling of the throat | swelling of the inside of the nose | swelling of the face | swelling of the hands | swelling of the arms | swelling around the mouth | swelling around the eyes | swelling of the affected area | swelling of the face | swelling of the tongue | swelling of the lips | swelling of the throat | swelling of the arms | swelling of the hands | swelling of the feet | swelling of the ankles | swelling of the lower legs
SEVERE abnormal heartbeat | bone pain | chest pain | chest discomfort | chest tightness | chills | coma | constant pain | convulsions | seizures | coughing up blood | irregular heartbeat | fast heartbeat | difficulty breathing | angina | severe chest pain | increased in frequency of chest pain | pounding heartbeat | fast heartbeat | fast heartbeat | rapid heart rate | rapid heartbeat | rapid pulse | irregular pulse | problems with coordination | problems with balance | vomiting blood | wheezing | severe rash | severe red skin rash | unusual lump | unusual mass | trouble breathing | thinking about killing | thinking about harming | severe abdominal pain | severe diarrhea | severe irritation of the skin | severe itching | severe burning | shaking hands that you cannot control | shortness of breath | slow heart rate | pulse less than 50 beats per minute | slow heartbeat | irregular heartbeat | weak heartbeat | swollen glands | swollen glands in the neck | swollen lymph nodes | symptoms | stroke | sudden change or loss of vision | sudden stomach pain | severe stomach pain | sudden weakness of an arm | sudden numbness of an arm | sudden numbness of leg | sudden weakness of leg | sudden weight gain | sweating

 

ROA (Route-of-Administration)
ENTERAL ate | chewing | drink | eat | insufflate | plug | plugged | smoke | smoked | sniff | snort
EPIDURAL inject | injected | injection
INTRAARTERIAL IV | IVed | IV’ed | IVing | IV’ing | inject | injected | injection
INTRACARDIAC inject | injected | injection
INTRACEREBRAL inject | injected | injection
INTRADERMAL IV | IV’ed | IVing | inject | injected | injection | sniff | snort | snorting | bumping | railing | doozing
INTRAMUSCULAR inject | injected | injection | skin poppin
INTRAVENOUS IV | IVed | IV’ed | IVing | IV’ing | inject | injected | injection
INHALATIONAL smoke | smokes | smoked | smoking | sniff | sniffed | sniffing |snort | snorted | snorting | bumping | railing | doozing
INTRAPERITONEAL inject | injected | injection
INTRATHECAL inject | injected | injection
INTRAOSSEOUS INFUSION inject | injected | injection
NASAL sniff | snort | snorting | bumping | railing | doozing
PARENTERAL inject | injected | injection
TRANSDERMAL patch | patches
TRANSMUCOSAL snort | snorted | snorting | sniff | sniffed | sniffing | bumping | railing | doozing
TOPICAL patch | patches
SUBCUTANEOUS inject | injected | injection

 

DRUGFORM
LIQUID syrups | elixirs | suspensions | ointment | oral spray | emulsions
SOLID powder | tablet | tab | pill | pills | tablets | tabs | capsules | capsule | caplets | cap | dry powder inhaler | DPI | paste

 

Template Pattern Productions

Knowledge-Aware-Search-Productions

Document Annotation

AQL

Knowledge-Aware-Search-AQL

Query Matcher

Demo & Live Web Application

PLEASE SELECT A RESOLUTION >720p TO WATCH THIS VIDEO
Knowledge Aware Search Live Demo

Evaluation

Knowledge-Aware-Search-Evaluation

Contact: Delroy Cameron